[10] found that BPb was associated with hypertension and anemia for lead acid battery workers. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Bemchmark Dose Technical Guidance, Risk Assessment Forum, Washington DC, 2012. Signs of hemolysis may include scleral icterus and jaundice. Even though numerous studies have demonstrated that BPb can induce adverse effects to the hematological system, Pourabdian et al. 1) where Y The case highlights the importance of occupational anamnesis for the diagnosis of lead poisoning, an uncommon condition which may mimic a variety of internal and surgical diseases. Koh DH, Nam JM, Graubard BI, Chen YC, Locke SJ, Friesen MC. Signs of hemolysis may … This study focuses on the dose-response relationship between BPb concentration and the hematological indicators from regular health examination. Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. A Nine Country Study. This study calculated the hazard index (HI) as potential health risk as follow. Flora et al. Riva MA, Lafranconi A, D'Orso MI, Cesana G. Lead poisoning: historical aspects of a paradigmatic "occupational and environmental disease". For mild cases of lead poisoning, you may just need to hire a professional to remove the lead contaminant from your home or community. Google Scholar. California Environmental Protection Agency, 2013. Lead is a metal that’s found in nature, deep within the ground. Shaik AP, Jamil K. Individual susceptibility and genotoxicity in workers exposed to hazardous materials like lead. For centuries, lead toxicity has been one of the most significant preventable causes of neurologic morbidity from an environmental toxin. Lead can cross the placental barrier, which means pregnant women who are exposed to lead also expose their unborn child. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. 3b), we examined the simulated BMD10 of BPb concentrations as recommended health management limits that were set at 25 and 35 μg/dL for male workers. YHC is a postdoctoral research fellow in Institute of Computational Comparative Medicine, Department of Anatomy and Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University. Wheeler MW, Bailer AJ. The best-fitted model and associated BMD and BMDL for each dose-response relation were selected based on the Akaike’s information criterion (AIC) and p-value of Chi-squared (χ2). This study adopted these reference ranges to calculate the number and propotion of normal and abnormal lead workers in male and female populations. Thus, the model-averaged BMD and BMDL can be calculated as \( \mu \left(\mathrm{BMD}\right)={\sum}_{k=1}^K{\mathrm{BMD}}_k\cdot {w}_k \) and \( \mu \left(\mathrm{BMDL}\right)={\sum}_{k=1}^K{\mathrm{BMDL}}_k\cdot {w}_k \), respectively. The BPb was mainly sourced from the current workplace. Moreover, when we adopted 25 μg/dL as BPb limits, the results of ORs and adjusted ORs were 1.04 (0.88–1.23) and 1.09 (0.87–1.37) with the hazard prevention probabilities of 67.0% and 76.9% under unadjusted and adjusted scenarios, respectively. 2013;28:178–88. To the editor: Recently, Pasricha et al 1 reported on the control of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. The BPb was significantly correlated with all hematological indicators, including Hct (r = −0.38; p < 0.001), Hgb (r = −0.40; p < 0.001), RBC (r = −0.18; p < 0.05), MCV (r = −0.19; p < 0.01), MCH (r = −0.22; p < 0.01), and MCHC (r = −0.18; p < 0.05) for male workers (Fig. Therefore, we used hematological indicators to represent BPb-induced anemia. Google Scholar. Memory and concentration problems. Risk contribution was 31.5% within total lead workers. The goal of this study was to examine the association between lead exposure and anemia risk among factory workers in Taiwan. Anemia associated with lead poisoning. According to the Labor Health Protection Law in Taiwan, the employer has the obligation to conduct the health examination for every worker once a year. 1995;10:228–30. 0 ~ binomial (π 1 are the observed normal and abnormal individuals in indicators of hematopoietic function. 2009;12:58–64. Environ Health Perspect. Nigeria Niger J Clin Pract. Haptoglobin scavenges free hemoglobin and is low in hemolytic anemia. Recently, lead condensate in exhaled breath was also shown to be a suitable non-invasive biomarker of occupational exposure in recent years [2]. Your child's doctor may recommend your child be tested for lead levels during routine check-ups.The American Academy of Pediatricians recommends that doctors and parents follow the recommendations of their state or local health department. Lead Poisoning and Anemia Associated With use of Ayurvedic Medications Purchased on the Internet — Wisconsin, 2015. All identifications such as name and job id were removed by the lead factories and Taiwan Institute of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health. here. Davis JA, Gift JS, Zhao QJ. Talk … It may cause potentially permanent learning and behavior disorders in children, as it affects nervous system development. ORs and adjusted ORs were 1.19 (0.88–1.59) and 1.38 (0.95–1.97) for female workers by using 15 μg/dL as BPb limit with the hazard prevention probabilities of 85.5% and 95.0% under unadjusted and adjusted scenarios, respectively (Fig. In addition, the airborne lead cannot fully reflect the health risk if the company successfully implements personal protection equipment and industrial hygiene. Environ Health Perspect. Lead poisoning is considered the most well characterized occupational disease. 2016;58:e371–4. Bailer AJ, Wheeler M, Dankovic D, Nobel R, Bena J. Lead workers also need to receive the special physical and medical examinations. 0 and Y 1| y) ~ beta (y Chou WC, Chio CP, Liao CM. Iranian J Toxicol. Forest plot showing the estimated hazard index with 95% confidence intervals and relative risk contribution for each working group. [23] found that indicators of Hgb, MCV, and white blood cell cell did not display concentration-dependence on BPb levels. Article  Although gasoline and paint are no longer made with lead in them, lead is still a health problem. Risk assessment results demonstrated that lead workers are likely to work in unsafe workplaces. Anemia makes it easier for lead to get into the blood. Kosnett MJ, Wedeen RP, Rothenberg SJ, Hipkins KL, Materna BL, Schwartz BS, Hu H, Woolf A. This study did not focus on the exposure assessment of airborne lead. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. The proportions of lead working population with abnormal hematological indicators were estimated >10% in each job category. Ann Occup Hyg. CAS  Copyright © 2020 Haymarket Media, Inc. All Rights Reserved Exposure routes of lead uptake in the workplace include ingestion and inhalation of inorganic lead. The direct antiglobulin test (DAT, direct Coombs test) should be negative (see chapter on laboratory testing for lead). Compared with male workers, female workers in lead battery factories had lower BPb levels. Anemia. To view unlimited content, log in or register for free. Because these symptoms may occur slowly or may be caused by other things, lead poisoning can be easily overlooked. ORs and adjusted ORs in male workers were 1.00 (95% CI: 0.84–1.18) and 1.10 (0.85–1.41) by using 35 μg/dL as BPb limit with the hazard prevention probabilities of 50.6% and 76.2% under unadjusted and adjusted scenarios, respectively. California Privacy Statement, Figure 5 shows the results of decision analysis. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4315-7, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4315-7. In adults, however, anemia is a much less conspicuous consequence of lead poisoning. 0| y) ~ beta (y Based on MC simulation, the BMDs were depicted as a probability density function of normal distribution that average BMD10 were 48.39 ± 11.58 (mean ± sd) and 10.26 ± 1.98 μg/dL for male and female workers, respectively (Fig. This study could not investigate and control the other possible sources of lead exposure outside the work and get the complete information on previous experience of lead-related work. Lead-exposed workers need to be continuously controlled and reduce their BPb even if levels are under the current limits of 40/30 μg/dL for male/female workers. Wu HM. Correspondence to Low dose BPb (< 20 μg/dL) in chronically-exposed workers is still likely to be associated health outcomes, such as cognitive dysfunction, hypertension risk, and renal dysfunction [9, 10]. Lead poisoning is a type of metal poisoning caused by lead in the body. NHH performed research concept design, data interpretation, manuscript preparation, and overall responsibility for study data. Risk contribution analysis indicated that female workers in the assembling group contributed a significant high risk to the total population, with a contribution proportion of 31.5%. $$, $$ \mathrm{TR}=\sum_{\mathrm{i}=1}^{\mathrm{n}}\left({HI}_{\mathrm{i}}\times {p}_{\mathrm{i}}\right), $$, $$ {\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{job}}=\frac{{\mathrm{HI}}_{\mathrm{i}}\times {p}_{\mathrm{i}}}{\mathrm{TR}}. For female workers, assembling and packaging work groups had relatively higher hazard occurrence probabilities of 80% and 60% with the median HIs of 1.48 (0.47–2.67) and 1.32 (0.43–3.16), respectively. Int J Hyg Environ Health. PubMed  0| y) and f(π To determine the critical effect dose, we used BMD modeling to estimate the BPb levels that could associate with 10% abnormal proportion of each hematological indicator. Control of iron deficiency in Iranian children the Taiwan Institute of Labor, occupational Safety and health under contract! Ors determining the available of calculated BMD10 as novel BPb limit results, which means pregnant women are... Toxicity has been Recently published in the differential, haptoglobin, lactate dehydrogenase ( LDH ), Fitted quantal for. Incorporating uncertainty and variability in the preference centre can result in behavioral problems no competing interests opportunity to the. The uncertainty and its impact on the expected risk estimates that were quantified by MC simulation and of... Ve read { { metering-total } } of { { metering-count } } of { { metering-count } of! Time-Weighted-Average airborne lead can not fully reflect the health examination record to construct the dose-response dataset with